September 22nd, 2018 3:46 PM
THE HISTORY OF GENETIC REPLACEMENT IN EUROPE
Genetic Replacement Is The Norm
Non-Africans mainly descend from the main successful out of Africa expansion at around 65 ka.
- expands into central asia –
divergence to some 50,000 years ago
west eurasians and east asians.
- and breeds with neanderthal –
- expands into europe via –
via Danubian(north) or Balkan (south) routes?
- expands into europe via –
- prospers into-
“Cro Magnon” = “European early modern humans” (EEMH) 45-43ka (‘sturdy’)
(- is bottlenecked by glacial maximum -)
- EEMH Evolves into: –
“West European Hunter-Gatherer” (WHG). 15ka (‘gracile’)
- Invaded and Replaced by —
“Early European Farmers” (EEF) 9ka.
Invaded and Replaced by —
Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) lineages from the Central Asian steppes.
- Invaded and Replaced by —
The genetic history of Europe since the Upper Paleolithic is inseparable from that of wider Western Eurasia. By about 50,000 years ago (50 ka) a basal West Eurasian lineage had emerged (alongside a separate East Asian lineage) out of the undifferentiated “non-African” lineage of 70 ka. The basal Western Eurasians were early exposed to significant Neanderthal admixture. Introgression of Neanderthal traits persisted in European populations into the present, affecting traits such as skin tone and hair color, height, sleeping patterns and mood.
European early modern humans (EEMH) lineages between 40 to 26 ka (Aurignacian) were still part of a large Western Eurasian “meta-population”, related to Central and Western Asian populations. Divergence into genetically distinct sub-populations within Western Eurasia is a result of increased selection pressure and founder effects during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, Gravettian). By the end of the LGM, after 20 ka, A Western European lineage, dubbed West European Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) emerges from the Solutrean refugium during the European Mesolithic. These mesolithic hunter-gatherer cultures are substantially replaced in the Neolithic Revolution by the arrival of Early European Farmers (EEF) lineages derived from mesolithic populations of West Asia (Anatolia and the Caucasus). In the European Bronze Age, there were again substantial population replacements in parts of Europe by the intrusion of Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) lineages from the Central Asian steppes. These population replacements are associated with the Beaker culture archaeologically and with the Indo-European expansion linguistically.
As a result of the population movements during the Mesolithic to Bronze Age, modern European populations are distinguished by their clinal differences in WHG, EEF and ANE ancestry. Admixture rates varied geographically; in the late Neolithic, WHG ancestry in farmers in Hungary was at around 10%, in Germany around 25% and in Iberia as high as 50%. Sardinians are characterized by almost pure derivation from EEF. The contribution of EEF is strongest in Mediterranean Europe, and declines towards northern and northeastern Europe, where WHG ancestry is stronger. ANE ancestry is found through throughout Europe, with maxima of about 20% found in Baltic people and Finns. WHG ancestry is also strongest in northeatern Europe, with contributions close to 50% found in the Baltic. Ethnogenesis of the modern ethnic groups of Europe in the historical period is associated with numerous admixture events, primiarily those associated with the Roman Empire, and the Germanic and Norse, Slavic, Arab and Turkish expansions.
European early modern humans
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
The term “early modern” is usually taken to include fossils of the Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian, extending throughout the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), covering the period of roughly 45,000 to 15,000 years ago.
The description as “modern” is used as contrasting with the “archaic” Neanderthals which lived in Europe during 300,000 to 40,000 years ago.
The term EEMH is equivalent to Cro-Magnon Man, or Cro-Magnons, a term derived from the Cro-Magnon rock shelter in southwestern France, where the first EEMH were found in 1868.
Louis Lartet (1869) proposed Homo sapiens fossilis as the systematic name for “Cro-Magnon Man”. W. K. Gregory (1921) proposed the subspecies name Homo sapiens cro-magnonensis.
In literature published since the late 1990s, the term EEMH is generally preferred over the common name Cro-Magnon, which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture.
The earliest known remains of EEMH can be dated to before 40,000 years ago (40 ka) with some certainty: those from Grotta del Cavallo in Italy, and from Kents Cavern in England, radiocarbon dated to 45â41 ka.
A number of other early fossils are dated close to or just after 40ka, including fossils found in Romania (PeÈtera cu Oase, 42â37 ka) and Russia (Kostenki-14, 40â35 ka).
The Siberian Ust’-Ishim man, dated to 45 ka, was not geographically found in Europe, and indeed is not part of the “Western Eurasian” genetic lineage, but intermediate between the Western Eurasian and East Asian lineages.
The EEMH lineage in the European Mesolithic is also known as “West European Hunter-Gatherer” (WHG).
These mesolithic hunter-gatherers emerge after the end of the LGM ca. 15 ka and are described as more gracile than the Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnons.
The WHG lineage survives in contemporary Europeans, albeit only as a minor contribution overwhelmed by the later Neolithic and Bronze Age migrations.