Property is an attempt to solve the problem of decidability on the use of resources.
But no matter how we arrange property we still have the problem of producing commons – where we define ‘commons’ as an investment that produces goods, but must be free of privatization (consumption).
(Parks are a great example because their central function is to prevent consumption of land – they have no other ‘use’ than transit and experience.)
Some commons produce status (art, poems, plays, parks, monuments, monumental architecture).
Some commons improve quality of life and safety (sewers, water treatment, armies).
Some improve prosperity through trade (roads, street cars, railways, airports).
To qualify as a commons, the use of the good must not be limited to those who paid for it. It’s just that the consumption of the good is prohibited.
Property=consumption (positive). Commons=preservation(negative).